Phase modulation PM is a modulation pattern that encodes information as variations in the instantaneous phase of a carrier wave. Password Forgot your password? Generally, a nonlinear optical material organic polymers have the fastest response rates, and thus are best for this application with an incident static or low frequency optical field will see a modulation of its refractive index. Suitable electronic circuits can switch such large voltages within a few nanoseconds, allowing the use of EOMs as fast optical switches. A very common application of EOMs is for creating sidebands in a monochromatic laser beam. The phase of a carrier signal is modulated to follow the changing voltage level amplitude of modulation signal.
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Suitable electronic circuits can switch such large voltages within a few nanoseconds, allowing the use of EOMs as fast optical switches. This device is called a Mach-Zehnder modulator.
Note that the electric field can be created by placing a parallel plate capacitor across the crystal.
Right click equation to reveal menu options. This page was last edited on 30 Octoberat mach-zehjder A Mach-Zehnder modulator is used for controlling the amplitude of an optical wave. Polarization modulation in electro-optic crystals can also be used as a technique for time-resolved measurement of unknown electric fields. Express 20 26 BB Van der Tol, R.
Since the field inside a parallel plate capacitor depends linearly on the potential, the index of refraction depends linearly on the field for crystals where Pockels effect dominatesand the phase depends linearly on the index of refraction, the phase modulation must depend linearly on the potential applied to the EOM. February 9, Manuscript Accepted: Express 3 1 Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.
The electro-optic effect is the change in the refractive index of a material resulting from the application of a DC or low-frequency electric field.
Electro-optic modulator – Wikipedia
The modulation may be imposed on the phasefrequencyamplitudeor polarization of the beam. Equations displayed with MathJax.
A very common application of EOMs is for creating sidebands in a monochromatic laser beam. This is caused by forces that distort the position, orientation, or shape of the molecules constituting the material.
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We’ve also updated our Privacy Notice. Express 20 11 mqch-zehnder Login or Create Account. February 12, Published: Generally, a nonlinear optical material organic polymers have the fastest response rates, and thus are best for this application with an incident static or low frequency optical field will see a modulation of its refractive index.
This model example illustrates applications of this type that would nominally be built using the following products:.
Depending on the type and orientation of the maach-zehnder crystal, and on the direction of the applied electric field, the phase delay can depend on the polarization direction. Liquid crystal devices are electro-optical phase modulators if no polarizers are used. Optics Express Andrew M. Articles lacking in-text citations from October All articles lacking in-text citations CS1 maint: Express 21 6 Alert me when this article is cited.
Notice that if one modulates the amplitude instead of the phase, one gets only the first set of sidebands. This adds a time dependent phase to the above expression.
Suggested Products Download the application files This model example illustrates applications of this type that would nominally be built using the following products: